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The statement “Standard Costing and Variance Analysis are appropriate to any type and size of organisation” is not true. As Drury (2009) stated “standard costing cannot be applied easily to non-repetitive activities, since there is no basis for observing and recording operations and standards cannot be set up” (Drury, 2009, p. 278). Therefore, a standard costing system is not appropriate to organizations where the production process is based on non-repetitive activities. Furthermore, establishing standards requires time and is very costly. Due to this, for small organizations it is often difficult to establish a standard costing system because of their limited financial resources. Moreover, standard costing was developed when the business environment was more stable and less vulnerable to changes. However, nowadays the business environment changes so rapidly that it is difficult to set standards for management control purpose throughout a year. In addition, the increasing automation of manufacturing processes led to a decline in direct labor costs and therefore to a corresponding decline in the importance of labor-related standard cost and variances (Needles, 2007). Therefore, manufacturing companies such as Kraft or Boeing are not using the traditional standard costing system anymore. They readjust this system only by using direct materials and overhead standards. Furthermore, in order to remain competitive in today´s environment many organizations focus on quality and customer satisfaction. However, the standard costing is more focusing on minimizing costs. Japanese production techniques such as Just-in-time and total quality management are more appropriate nowadays to many organizations because they meet the corporate objectives more effectively.
Policy Option C
The last option that constitutes a combination of all possible options available makes it the best one. The project will be called the “AAA” or Action on Aids in Africa, and in alliance with the IMF, the World Bank, and the UN, the plan for eliminating the threat of AIDS in Africa will come to a close. Funding of $20 billion will be presented to the project over a five year initiative.
The goals of the plan are as follows:
· Every African living with HIV/AIDS should have access to lifesaving
antiretroviral therapy on or before December 2003.
· Every African pregnant woman should have access to life saving medicines that can reduce or elimate mother to child transmission of HIV on or before August 2003.
· Every African AIDS orphan should be in school and receive appropriate medical care on or before December 2003.
· The African nation should have enough resources to mount a credible information, education, and communication campaign against HIV transmission on or before August 2003.
· Every African country with five percent or more of its population living with
HIV/AIDS should have their debts cancelled and the savings channeled to
health and social programs on or before August 2003.