Meyer and Allen developed the Affective Commitment Scale (ACS), the Normative Commitment Scale (NCS) and the Continuance Commitment Scale (CCS) to measure these components of commitment. Many researchers have used them to determine what impact an employee's level of commitment has on outcomes such as quitting behavior, job performance, and absenteeism. However, some researchers have questioned how well they actually assess an employee's commitment, and efforts to improve the validity of these scales, and similar commitment scales such as Mowday, Porter, and Steers' Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ), continues.
Leadership is an important function of management which helps to maximize efficiency and to achieve organizational goals. In fact leadership is an essential part and a crucial component of effective management. A remarkable leadership behaviour stresses upon building an environment in which each and every employee develops and excels. It has the potential to influence and drive the group efforts towards the accomplishment of goals. Line managers must have traits of a leader. They must possess leadership qualities. With leadership qualities line managers can develop and begin strategies that build and sustain competitive advantage.