Even more ambitious is the US$900 million Red Sea–Dead Sea Canal , a joint venture between Israel and Jordan to build a large desalination plant on the Red Sea, where they share a border, and divide the water among Israelis, Jordanians and the Palestinians. The brine discharge from the plant will be piped 100 miles north through Jordan to replenish the Dead Sea, which has been dropping a meter per year since the two countries began diverting the only river that feeds it in the 1960s. By 2020, these old foes will be drinking from the same tap.
The Roman Empire invaded the region in 63 BCE, first taking control of Syria , and then intervening in the Hasmonean Civil War . The struggle between pro-Roman and pro-Parthian factions in Judea eventually led to the installation of Herod the Great and consolidation of the Herodian kingdom as a vassal Judean state of Rome. With the decline of the Herodian dynasty , Judea, transformed into a Roman province , became the site of a violent struggle of Jews against Greco-Romans, culminating in the Jewish–Roman wars , ending in wide-scale destruction, expulsions, and genocide. Jewish presence in the region significantly dwindled after the failure of the Bar Kokhba revolt against the Roman Empire in 132 CE.