Proclaims this Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.
Historically, only men have been subjected to conscription.      In the second half of the 20th century, women began to be conscripted, primarily in communist/socialist countries. The integration of women into militaries, and especially into combat forces, did not begin on a large scale until the second half of the 20th century. Men who opt out of military service must often perform alternative service, such as Zivildienst in Austria and Switzerland , whereas women do not have even these obligations.