Another factor many criminologists consider key to making a life of crime easier is the availability of handguns in . society. Many firearms used in crimes are stolen or purchased illegally (bought on what is called the "black market"). Firearms provide a simple means of committing a crime while allowing offenders some distance or detachment from their victims. Of the 400,000 violent crimes involving firearms in 1998, over 330,000 involved handguns. By the beginning of the twenty-first century firearm use was the eighth leading cause of death in the United States.
So has the death of broken window theory been
exaggerated? The Harcourt and Ludwig (2006) research discrediting the original
broken window theory may tell us that physical signs of disorder do not predict
neighbourhood crime; but what they do predict is more physical disorder. And on what
grounds is it deemed acceptable that people should be expected to live in such an
environment? Where broken windows are not being repaired and other maintenance is not
being carried out, residents (yes, that includes schoolchildren) are being subjected to
disrespect on the part of the services established and funded to maintain order.
From work I've done on estates in the past I'm sure that local people often sense the danger of a tipping point of disorder, although they might not articulate it in terms of 'broken window theory' or collective efficacy or whatever. - Kevin Harris, Mending broken window theory.
Le Corbusier’s answer to the standardization of the construction industry was his modular. It was developed on the principles of proportions set forth by the “Golden Section” and Fibonacci sequences. However unlike his predecessors, Le Corbusier regulated his proportional schema to the realm of relative rather than absolute standards (34). “Taking man in his environment, instead of [utilizing] universals” Le Corbusier was able to quell some skeptics due to its lack of “metaphysical connotations”(35) Le Corbusier stated in his own manifesto that “man looks at the creation of architecture with his eyes, which are 5 feet 6 inches from the ground (Fig. 13).(36)” Relating the human body to Modulor enabled a “co-ordination at every level from town planning to furniture.”(37) The Modulor which consisted of “two divergent series of irrational numbers derived from the Golden Section” had its roots in the early proportional explorations by Le Corbusier in his work on the purist Villas like that of Graches (Fig. 12)(38).