Hitler’s emergence as chancellor on January 30, 1933, marked a crucial turning point for Germany and, ultimately, for the world. His plan, embraced by much of the German population, was to do away with politics and make Germany a powerful, unified one-party state. He began immediately, ordering a rapid expansion of the state police, the Gestapo, and putting Hermann Goering in charge of a new security force, composed entirely of Nazis and dedicated to stamping out whatever opposition to his party might arise. From that moment on, Nazi Germany was off and running, and there was little Hindenburg or von Papen—or anyone—could do to stop it.
1. In 1904 Russia and Japan went to war over territory and colonial rights in Asia, particularly Manchuria and Korea.
2. Japan sought a negotiated settlement, while Russia underestimated Japan’s capacity and willingness for war.
3. Japan initiated the war with a surprise attack on Port Arthur, which war later captured after a five-month siege.
4. In May 1905 almost the entire Russian Baltic Fleet was captured or destroyed at the Battle of Tsushima.
5. Russia was forced to negotiate peace terms, which resulted in the Treaty of Portsmouth in September 1905. The war worsened Russia’s already recessed economy and its disastrous management further discredit the tsar and his advisors.