Proteins are produced through the processes of DNA transcription and translation . In protein synthesis, DNA is first transcribed or copied into RNA . The resulting RNA transcript or messenger RNA (mRNA) is then translated to produce amino acids from the transcribed genetic code . Organelles called ribosomes and another RNA molecule called transfer RNA help to translate mRNA. The resulting amino acids are joined together through dehydration synthesis, a process in which a peptide bond is formed between the amino acids. A polypeptide chain is formed when a number of amino acids are linked together by peptide bonds. After several modifications, the polypeptide chain becomes a fully functioning protein. One or more polypeptide chains twisted into a 3-D structure form a protein .
Amino acids are the structural units (monomers) that make up proteins. They join together to form short polymer chains called peptides or longer chains called either polypeptides or proteins . These polymers are linear and unbranched, with each amino acid within the chain attached to two neighboring amino acids. The process of making proteins encoded by DNA/RNA genetic material is called translation and involves the step-by-step addition of amino acids to a growing protein chain by a ribozyme that is called a ribosome .  The order in which the amino acids are added is read through the genetic code from an mRNA template, which is a RNA copy of one of the organism's genes .