In an approximate way, the logic of commons has been understood for a long time, perhaps since the discovery of agriculture or the invention of private property in real estate. But it is understood mostly only in special cases which are not sufficiently generalized. Even at this late date, cattlemen leasing national land on the western ranges demonstrate no more than an ambivalent understanding, in constantly pressuring federal authorities to increase the head count to the point where overgrazing produces erosion and weed-dominance. Likewise, the oceans of the world continue to suffer from the survival of the philosophy of the commons. Maritime nations still respond automatically to the shibboleth of the "freedom of the seas." Professing to believe in "the inexhaustible resources of the oceans," they bring species after species of fish and whales closer to extinction (9).
Among the seven-member University Credit Transfer Consortium, we will grant specific course credit for 20 of the most highly subscribed first-year and second-year basic courses. Consortium members are committed to ensuring that all courses within our degrees meet standards of high quality and that our basic courses adequately prepare for more focused learning in higher years. Completing any of these foundational courses at any consortium member university will satisfy the program prerequisite requirement that the corresponding McMaster University course would satisfy, subject to meeting grade requirements. Please review the chart below for transfer information of specific courses. A printable .pdf version of the chart is also available: printable version .